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What is planning permission?
Planning permission is formally-granted permission for the erection or alteration of buildings or other structural development.
Although the UK Parliament controls national planning policy, local authorities are responsible for deciding whether to grant planning permission on a case-by-case basis.
In order to be granted planning permission, the occupier of a building also needs to be the owner. As the owner of a building or other development, it is your responsibility to seek planning permission - and to make sure it is granted before any work takes place.
If you live in a Conservation Area, or own a Grade 1, 2 or 2* listed property, there are also likely to be other conditions you need to comply with before development can take place. Your local authority should be able to clarify these for you.
What sort of projects need planning permission?
You’re likely to need planning permission if you want to build a new structure, make a major change to an existing structure, or change the use of a building.
This guide should help you work out if your project needs planning permission. It includes specific tips on whether you’re likely to need permission for a number of common projects - like roof work, internal and external walls, kitchens and bathrooms, conservatories, extensions and conversions.
If you’re still unsure, it’s always best to check with your local planning authority (LPA) before work begins. You can use this tool to find the website for your local council.
What sort of projects don’t need planning permission?
Certain minor changes to your property may be covered by permitted development (PD) status. Permitted development rights allow you to extend an existing house by a certain percentage, and carry out certain improvements, without the need for planning permission.
Projects that usually have permitted development rights include:
- The erection, extension or alteration of an industrial building or warehouse
- The erection of certain adverts and signs
- Demolition work - though you must first get approval for it from your local planning authority.
It’s also possible you won’t need planning permission if your project will have no impact either on your neighbours or on the environment. However, it’s still important you check with your local authority before any work begins.
How do I apply for planning permission?
The simplest way to make a planning application is online. You can apply to every local authority in England and Wales through this planning portal, part-run by the Department for Communities and Local Government.
Assembling your planning application can be quite a lengthy process, so make sure you give yourself enough time. You’ll need to:
- Survey your home and prepare accurate drawings of the existing property and your proposal for development;
- Support your application with a 'Design Access Statement' that demonstrates you have considered the form, proportion, layout, volume, materials and impact of your proposal with the guidelines set out by your local authority.
Allow 4-10 weeks to sort all this out - you’ll be making important decisions that you’ll have to live with for some time.
How long does it usually take to get planning permission?
Planning applications are usually decided within eight weeks of submission. In England, a time limit of 13 weeks can be set if cases are particularly large or complicated.
In total, from the initial design work to the decision on your planning application, the time frame could be five months or longer.
What are the main reasons I might be denied planning permission?
When council planning officials are deciding whether to grant planning permission, certain key factors are taken into account. These include:
- Whether the neighbours raise any objections
- Whether the proposed design is of good quality and in-keeping with surrounding properties
- What impact your proposed development will have on your neighbours and the environment - for example through loss of light or loss of privacy.
Remember that planning officials will take future owners of the property - and future neighbours - into account too.
This guide, from Richmond Council in London, includes a list of the most common reasons planning applications are rejected.
If my application for planning permission fails, what do I do next?
If your application is refused, you should first try to find a compromise with the local planning authority, by adjusting your plans to take any feedback or recommendations from them into account.
If you still can’t reach an agreement, you can launch an appeal. This is the government guidance around how and when you can appeal.
What happens if I go ahead with a project without planning permission?
If you carry out work without getting planning permission, planning officers can serve you with an enforcement notice ordering you to reverse all the changes you’ve made.
It could also cause you serious problems if you ever try to sell your home: You’ll need to prove to your buyer’s solicitor that any work has been carried out in accordance with relevant planning laws.
The trouble with planning permission
It's subjective. You are mostly at the mercy of the planners. If they don't agree with your proposal, it will be refused - even if you feel that you've met the criteria set out in their design guidelines and can demonstrate that there are similar developments within your immediate area.
It's piecemeal. Most local planning departments are over-burdened and don't have the time to provide you with adequate pre-planning advice. High turnover of staff (we have a national shortage of qualified planners) creates major problems, especially if your planning officer leaves mid-way through the application process.
It's emotional. Keeping neighbours up to date in person is a great way of minimising written objections to your application. There is nothing neighbours hate more than first hearing about your development plans from the council. This is often more down to concerns about noisy builders than the aesthetic merits of your proposal.